A new report coming out on Tuesday says a routine prostate cancer test could do more harm than good. It recommends that healthy men should not get the prostate-specific antigen, or P.S.A., exam. Some physicians argue that the test can reduce a man’s chances of dying of prostate cancer, plain and simple. But others argue that on balance, scientific studies do not support the claim that screening healthy men saves lives and in fact may cause them to have unnecessary surgery which could leave them incontinent, impotent or even death. Evaluating the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening.